How to Cite
KARA, B. (2019). The Impact Of Globalization On Cities. International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs3(2), 108-113. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4707

 

                                                                                                                               Contemporary Urban Affairs

                                                                                                        2019, Volume 3, Number 2, pages 108– 113

 

The Impact of Globalization on Cities

*PhD candidate. Beyhan Kara

Faculty of Architecture, Girne American University, North Cyprus
E mail: beyhankaraarch@gmail.com

 



A B S T R A C T
1

A lot of cities nowadays are changing a lot due to the influence of globalisation. The most significant impact of globalization is in cities, because of the cities are becoming the rulers of the countries. Urban developments pending in this process are with different dimensions. However, here is the globalization process and to the understanding of the continuing city administration, to the effects of urban space and urban life. In sum, the effects of globalization on cities and the concept of world city are forming. In the context of the problem of globalization, the globalization of economic, cultural, social, spatial and environmental values and effects on management understanding. İt was established that globalisation also includes the increased movement of people, products, ideas, images, lifestyles, policies and capital and that it affects cities through local and global dynamics which in turn causes macro-urban and micro-urban changes. Conclusions were made that globalisation tends to effects a lot of spatial, economic and social patterns which in turn affect cities but does not result in the same spatial patterns.


CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(2), 108-113. Doi:10.25034/ijcua.2018.4707

A R T I C L E  I N F O:
Article history:
Received 08 April 2018
Accepted 23 April 2018
Available online 12 October 2018

Keywords:
Cities;
Globalization;
 Global City.

*Corresponding Author:  
Faculty of Architecture, Girne American University, North Cyprus
E-mail address: beyhankaraarch@gmail.com
www.ijcua.com

 


 

Introduction
Globalisation is one of the most dominating topics around the world and covers a lot of aspects which range from economics, politics, religion to social elements. The extent to which globalisation has been influencing economic and social elements has been so significant that researchers like (Brenner, 1999; Healey, 1997), now consider it a global phenomenon just like its name implies.
Globalisation, on the other hand, consists of a lot of aspects and elements and some of them tend to interfere and contrast with each other and hence its meaning is always subject to a lot of different definitions. Globalisation will be defined as the continued increase in the movement of commodities, capital, images, identities and people through a global space (Jessop, 1998). A study by Amin and Thrift (1994), consider that globalisation is not limited to the movement of physical things such as products and people but can also extend to include intangible things such as ideas. Hence, we can redefine globalisation as the increased movement of lifestyles, policies, principles, ideologies, commodities and people through a global space. From this definition, we can thus note that globalisation has to a greater extent being influencing a lot of aspects and most of them being social aspects such as lifestyles, culture, and images.
İt is also important to note that the increase in globalisation has been caused by two important things and these are technological and media developments. A lot of new and innovative technology is now being introduced almost on an annual basis and this affects the way people communicate or shares ideas (Tasan & Van Weesep, 2007). İn addition, the growth and developments of social media channels now play an important role in people’s lives as it now causing huge changes in people’s tastes and preferences.
İrrespective of the causes of globalisation, there are a lot of ideas which consider globalisation to pose huge effects on the society. For instance, an idea was given by Ritzer (2004), also showed that globalisation has huge effects on social aspects, values, norms and beliefs as well as activities and processes that characterise of help to identify people. With regards to this aspect, it can thus be noted that globalisation tends to affect the way people stay. This can be supported by ideas obtained from a study by Jessop and Sum (2000), which highlighted that there is now a huge shift in the way people are staying especially those in the cities as a result of globalisation. This idea shows that there is a strong connection between globalisation patterns and cities whether in terms of structure, style, designs or development. This is because changes in lifestyles, culture, tastes and preferences as a result of globalisation tend to affect the way cities are designed and developed. This can simply be expressed the way and extent to which cities are being urbanised.
Meanwhile,efforts to study the impact of globalisation will not be complete unless effort is devoted to studying how it affects cities. This is also because of ideas which have been given which showed that globalisation does not only affect economic elements but also causes a change in culture, lifestyle, opinions, beliefs, ideas, tastes and preferences (Johnston et al., 2003).Hence, we can expect that people’s perception towards modern western architectural building designs to change as well as their desire to stay in the cities. More so, it was noted that there is a change in the way cities are being managed as a result of an influx of new ideas through globalisation. With all these ideas in mind, it, therefore, shows that there is a greater need to examine the effects of globalisation on cities. This paper, therefore, seeks to examine the effects of globalisation on cities.
The Concept of Globalisation and Urban Geography
As noted from the above explanations, globalisation has a strong influence on urban geography and effort was once placed by the Urban Regional Research Centre Utrecht to examine the effects and scope of globalisation (Jessop & Sum, 2000). The findings showed that ideas about globalisation have been limited in terms of scope and that both its effects and scope are diverse and affect a lot of things such as urban development. This was further supported by ideas established in a study by of Tuna Taçan-Kok which highlighted that the effects of globalisation are not homogenised and have a lot of effects on spatial patterns on the periphery of both developed and developing economies (Healey, 1997). This,however, led to two important questions being raised, that is,
•          What is globalisation?
•          How does globalisation affect local specialities such as cities?
From these two questions, additional information and ideas were obtained which showed that globalisation itself is always changing and that it poses effects on economic activities in cities. Hence, it can be questioned from these ideas;
•          Whether globalisation affects spatial, economic and social patterns?
•          İf all the places that are experiencing globalisation have the same spatial, economic and social patterns?
•          To what extent can we regard spatial changes in cities as globalisation?
•          Whether certain urbanchanges can be linked to globalisation or not and if so how?
Observations were made that all globalising cities are increasingly becoming similar (Hubbard & Hall, 1998). Whether the new city features are more important than the old age city features or not, it all depends on how people are viewing the newly globalised cities. Some of these aspects were narrowly covered and outlined in the Journal of Housing and the Built Environment in which it is highlighted that there is a relationship that exists between urban systems, local development and globalisation (Bryson, et al., Eds.). As a result, globalisation was presumed as causing positive changes in urban systems and local development. However, the extent to which globalisation affects local urban systems and local development tend to differ with the way and manner to which global and local aspects of globalisation are being handled or


2
Figure 1. Conceptual aspects of globalisation, urban change and property market dynamics


approached. This implies that globalisation has its own different global effects and the way in which the local environment or people respond to globalisation also influences urban systems and local developmentis going to change. Which implies that the greater the level and extent to which the global economy is globalising will also have a significant influence on how other cities will be affected or will globalise. On the other hand, the more responsive the local people are to globalisation, the greater the level of changes that will be seen in terms of urban systems and local development. As a result, this paper can, therefore, raise the following questions;
•          What is really globalisation and how does it affect cities?
•          How do local and global forces contribute to urban change?
•          To what extent do global processes affect neighborhood development?
•          Why do cities that are part of regional systems still dependent on other cities when globalisation can make them less dependent?
•          How changes in global capital movements affect the real estate and property sector and in turn cause changes in cities?
•          How can urban management be modelled to account or cater for the globalisation of cities?
The above questions can somehow be grouped into four elements and the obtained elements are illustrated in a diagrammatical form as shown in figure 1. İt can be noted that the effects of globalisation will initially commence on a global scale then extend to the lower level. They also see changes starting from the urban systems rising to affect the urban systems which in turn affect cities at the neighbourhood level. İt is at the neighborhood level that we find property market dynamics.
The figure above reflects globalisation is a multi-faceted element which affects a lot of aspects. As noted, it affects the mobility and circulation of capital, images, products and people and this, in turn, causes urban change as it begins to reflect the micro-urban change and macro-urban change. There are also changes in governmental structures that occur as a result of globalisation. Once governmental structures begin to change, urban changes both macro and micro, as well as changes in property market dynamics, will be inevitable. Changes in property market dynamics usually cause a change in reaction by property market actors.
There are however ideas which go against some of the implications made by figure 1 and such ideas also agree that globalisation tends to affects a lot of spatial, economic and social patterns, but they tend to disagree on the idea that globalisation does not result in the same spatial patterns.
Efforts to examine how globalisation affects cities can also be analysed using the interaction of local and global dynamics as shown in figure 2.


3
Figure 2. The influence of the interaction between local and global dynamics of globalisation on cities. Source: Taşan-Kok and Van weep (2007, pp. 5). Global-local interaction and its impact on cities


Figure 2, denotes that both local and global dynamics interact to cause changes in local institutions. The same applies to local and global organisations, they all pose effects on local institutions and it is through changes in localinstitutions that changes in cities will begin to take place.
What is being globalised?
Different ideas can also be given on what is being globalised. There are studies which show that globalisation does not globalise anything (Jessop & Sum, 2000; Johnston et al., 2003). Yet, on the other hand, it can be noted that globalisation affects almost anything be it retailing or consumption (Jessop, 1998). This can be supported by ideas established by Ritzer (2004) which suggests that globalisation has initiated almost similar patterns of consumption with an increase in the creation of non-places. As a result, there is an increase in the number of entertainment centres, office parks, shopping centres that are being created as a result of globalisation. However, the ability of other people in other cities to follow the same patterns does not mean that a standard or measurement or an idea that the effects of globalisation are the same but rather serve as an inspiration for spatial development. Though cities may also take or assume the same architectural style, design, scale and function, it still remains the same that globalisation is not causing the same effects across the globe or on cities (Johnston et al., 2003).
Urban change: Global and Local Forces
Global forces tend to have an impact on urban areas and such impact are due to the following reasons;
Economic globalisation causes cities to look more beautiful as capital funds are moved from one nation to the other especially from advanced cities to urban areas that may possibly be lacking in terms of development (Ritzer, 2004).
İncreases in global competitiveness which is causing cities to seek new regulatory frameworks so as to provide support to non-market, neo-liberal and entrepreneurial market regimes (Tasan & Van Weesep, 2007).
Cities are a form or representation of a legal system and their administratorstend to adopt social, politicaleconomicand local conditions. This is because urban development tends to assume of following certain patterns and hence making it difficult to have a model of a globalised city (Tasan & Van Weesep, 2007).
Cities are always in competition for international funds and efforts to lure more funds than other cities will be reflected on how they react and position developmental activities so as to gain a competitive advantage over other cities (Jessop, 1998).
However, globalization is said to increase the subjugation of localities (cities or regions) to global forces (Amin & Thrift, 1994).


Urban Systems within The Global Network of Cities
When it comes to the idea of globalisation, considerations can be made that cities can benefit positively from globalisation. This is because cities can attain better positions in the world by boosting the competitive edge. This is also as a result of the idea that economic, political and social strategies adopted and implemented by urban governance do not only cause a change in economicperformance but also result in additional economic development (Ritzer, 2004), Ritzer (2004). Efforts to ensure that cities remain competitive require that cities possess sound and effective decision makers, organisations and actors. This is because the main emphasis is to get more global capital. As a result, municipal authorities will engage in activities that will see cities being developed especially to levels and standards where they can; lure more global funds (Tasan & Van Weesep, 2007). Such can also be a reflection of the effects of globalisationwhich,may also cause cities to become a global network of each other.
Globalization and property markets
İt is also important to note that there exists a relationship between globalisation and property markets. This can be illustrated using ideas given by Ritzer (2004), which contend that globalisation results in globalised cities which have features of cities as being financial centres and huge bearing of an urban economy. Such is possible when barriers that limit capital movement have been removed hence creating a new urban space and place for consuming, servicing, producing, working and dwelling. More investors who are in need of potential investment vehicles often turn to the property market for investment (Tasan & Van Weesep, 2007). Such can have a huge impact on cities especially when investors from globalised nations begin to plough more funds into cities that are notglobalised and developed.
Conclusions
Based on the established ideas conclusions can, therefore, be made that globalisation tends to affect cities and its effects on cities is in a number of different forms. This follows ideas which have also been given which showed that globalisation does not only affect economic elements but also causes a change in culture, lifestyle, opinions, beliefs, ideas, tastes and preferences. Conclusions can also be made that globalisation tends to affects a lot of spatial, economic and social patterns which in turn affect cities. Conclusions can also be made that though globalisation affects cities, it, however, does not result in the same spatial patterns. Conclusions can be made in respect of the established questions that;
Globalisation is the continued increased in the movement of people, products, ideas, images, lifestyles, policies and capital and that it affects cities through local and global dynamics which inturn causes macro-urban and micro-urban changes.
Changes in local and global forces contribute to urban change through the effects they pose on local institutions which inturn causes macro and micro urban changes.
Cities that are part of regional systems can still be dependent on other cities when globalisation can make them less dependent because they are part of a network of cities which relies on other cities for products, services, ideas etc.
Changes in global capital movements affect the real estate and property sector and in turn, cause changes in cities as investors will be looking for investment vehicles which they can use to make investments. The notable investment vehicle being the property market.
Policy implications
There is greater need to take advantage of globalisation especially in terms of people, products, ideas, culture and capital to positively design and develop cities in a way that will enhance people’s standard of living and quality of lifestyle.
Domestic or local planning authorities and architects are strongly encouraged to adopt international standards in the day so as to come with developments and designs that are of international standard and quality.
Cities or urban administrators must have good management of public resources so that they be entrusted with huge global capital funds.
Better management of cities is needed so as to put an effective use of funds towards the development of cities.

References
Amin, A., & Thrift, N. (1994). Globalization, institutions, and regional development in Europe. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, Retrieved from: https://research-information.bristol.ac.uk/en/publications/globalization-institutions-and-regional-development-in-europe(5370969f-d869-45b8-b92b-84db2fd95aba).html
Brenner, N. (1999). Globalization as reterritorialization: The re-scaling of urban governance in the European Union. Urban Studies, 36(3), 431-451. Available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.483.2958&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Bryson, N. Henry, D. Keeble, & R. Martin (Eds.) (1999). The economic geography reader. In K. Olds, &J. Poon, (2002). Theories and Discourses of Economic Geography: Papers from the Singapore Conference on Economic Geography, December 2000. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 34(3), 379–383. https://doi.org/10.1068/a356
Healey,P, Khakee, K., Motte, A., & Needham, B. (Eds.). (2006).Making strategic spatial plans: Innovation in Europe. UCL Press Limited, London: ULL. Available at https://epdf.tips/making-strategic-spatial-plans-innovation-in-europe-umea-university-sweden-alain.html
Hubbard, P., & Hall, T. (1998). The entrepreneurial city: Geographies of politics, regime and representation. In F. Wu. (2003). The (Post-) Socialist Entrepreneurial City as a State Project: Shanghai’s Reglobalisation in Question. Urban Studies, 40(9), 1673–1698. https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000106555
Jessop, B. (1998). The narrative of enterprise and the enterprise of narrative: Place marketing and the entrepreneurial city. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312608606_The_enterprise_of_narrative_and_the_narrative_of_enterprise_place_marketing_and_the_entrepreneurial_city  
Jessop, B., & Sum, N. L. (2000), The entrepreneurial city in action: Hong Kong's emerging strategies in and for (inter-) urban competition. Urban Studies, 37(12), 2287-2313. Retrieved from: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/resources/sociology-online-papers/papers/jessop-sum-USE-2000a.pdf
Johnston, R. J., Gregory, D., Pratt, G., & Watts, M. (2003). The dictionary of human geography. Maiden: Blackwell. Retrieved from: http://www.univpgri-palembang.ac.id/perpus-fkip/Perpustakaan/Geography/Kamus%20Geografi/Kamus%20Geografi%20Manusia.pdf
Ritzer, G.& Ryan, M. (2007). The Globalization of Nothing. SAIS Review. 23(2), 189-200. https://doi.org/10.1353/sais.2003.0053   
Steger, M. B.  (Ed.).(2010). Globalization: The Greatest Hits: A Global Studies Reader (pp. 71-84). In R. J. Sutcliffe (2015). Globalisation and subjective globalisation (pp. 1-42). Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/31251394/Sutcliffe_Globalization_Subjective_Globalization.pdf
Taşan-Kok, T., & Van weesep, J. (2007). Global-local interaction and its impact on cities. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 22(1), 1-11. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41107365
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attri¬bution      - NonCommercial -  NoDerivs 4.0.
"CC-BY-NC-ND"

How to Cite
KARA, B. (2019). The Impact Of Globalization On Cities. International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs3(2), 108-113. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4707