Aesthetics of Space Organization: Lessons from Traditional European Cities

Main Article Content

Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia, Dr.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1083-280X
Yousif Hussien Suleiman, MA.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2764-4693

Abstract

For centuries the aesthetic significance of space organization has been one of the significant subjects of study for most artists, architects, urban designers and philosophers. Cities which experience diverse stages of growth transmit dissimilar aesthetic values due to their locations, culture, history and background. This research will try to take out the aesthetic values of the traditional European cities through the literature on aesthetic of urban design. Accordingly, this study reflects the term urban aesthetics in spatial organization. It tries to answer the question of how space organization can lead to the aesthetic understanding of a place. The methodology for this study developed based on grounded theory study and qualitative assessments of European cities thorough the literature review. Overall, the study assessed integration, visual connectivity, vitality, spatial quality, as the main factors in shaping the aesthetic quality of the urban environment in European traditional cities. At the end, it proposed the findings to apply in contemporary urban designing.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nia, H., & Suleiman, Y. (2018). Aesthetics of Space Organization: Lessons from Traditional European Cities. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 2(1), 66-75. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3659
Section
Articles

References

Abdullah, I. H. (2009). Aesthetic theory in the art of design. Modern Discussion, no.2677, (reference in Arabic). Available: http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid=175060

Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1980). A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University. Available at: http://library.uniteddiversity.coop/Ecological_Building/A_Pattern_Language.pdf

Al-Jaf, A.I. (2008). Aesthetic- from the source of the modern English and French literature of Art in 2008”, Gilgamish Center for Kurdish Studies and Research, 2012, ,( reference in Arabic), http://www.gilgamish.org/viewarticle.php?id=studies-20120316-25994

Ashihara, Y. (1983). The aesthetic Townscape. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT-Pr. https://www.amazon.com/Aesthetic-Townscape-Yoshinobu-Ashihara/dp/0262010690

Atfeh, N. (2008). Modern Policies and Trends in Architecture and Contemporary Cities. Presented at the Workshop-atelier/terrain – Jinze (Qingpu-Shanghai) p.13-14. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311583763_Aesthetic_values_of_the_future_cities

Arenibafo, F. (2017). The Transformation of Aesthetics in Architecture from Traditional to Modern Architecture: A case study of the Yoruba (southwestern) region of Nigeria. Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), 1(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)35-44

Blanc, N. (2013). Aesthetic Engagement in the City. Contemporary Aesthetics (CA) online journal, Volume 11 (2013), p.2, http://www.contempaesthetics.org

Cullen, G. (1961).The Concise Townscape. The Architectural Press, London, 1961, p.147. https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/10834661

Gehl, J. (2010). Cities for people. Washington, DC: Island Press. http://www.sfu.ca/~paulb/iat233/Cities%20for%20People(ch1-2)_Jan_Gehl.pdf

Gibson, J.J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company. https://daughtersofchaos.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/gibson_occluding-edge_1979.pdf

Hariry, Z. (2017). The Influence of Globalization on Distracting Traditional Aesthetic Values in Old Town of Erbil. Contemporary Urban Affairs (JCUA), 1(1), 56-66. https://doi.org/10.25034/1761.1(1)56-66

Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House. https://www.buurtwijs.nl/sites/default/files/buurtwijs/bestanden/jane_jacobs_the_death_and_life_of_great_american.pdf

Lang, J. (1987). Creating architectural theory: role pf the behavior science in environmental design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1154&context=jstae

Lang, J. (1988). Environmental Aesthetics: Theory, Research and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/tr/academic/subjects/psychology/social-psychology/environmental-aesthetics-theory-research-and-application?format=PB

Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge, England: MIT Press. http://www.miguelangelmartinez.net/IMG/pdf/1960_Kevin_Lynch_The_Image_of_The_City_book.pdf

Moughtin, C. (1992). Urban Design Street and Square .Oxford: Butterworth Architecture. http://www.cmecc.com/uploads/%E8%AF%BE%E6%9C%AC%E5%92%8C%E8%AE%BA%E6%96%87/[76][%E8%A7%84%E5%88%92%E8%AE%BE%E8%AE%A1]Cliff.Moughtin(2003).Urban.design_street.and.square.pdf

Mumford, L. (1968). City: Forms and Functions. in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan Co. and the Free Press. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/journalcpij/43.3/0/43.3_157/_article/-char/en

Porteous, J.D. (2003). Environmental Aesthetic: ideas, politics and planning, Taylor & Francis e-Library, London and New York. p.22. https://epdf.tips/environmental-aesthetics-ideas-politics-and-planning.html

Rossi, A. (1988). Architecture of the city. MIT press. https://monoskop.org/images/1/16/Rossi_Aldo_The_Architecture_of_the_City_1982_OCR_parts_missing.pdf

Simpson, J., & Weiner, E. (2012). Aesthetics. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/aesthetic

Sitte, C. (1889). City Planning According to Artistic Principles. (G. R. Collins, & C. Collins, trans.). London: Phaidon Press. https://www.amazon.com/City-planning-according-artistic-principles/dp/B001O2HYFM

Whyte, W. H. (2007). “Introduction”, “The Life of Plazas,” “Sitting Space” and “Sun, Wind, Trees, & Water.” In M. Larice and E. Macdonald (Eds.), The urban design reader (pp. 348-363). London, England: Routledge.

Williams, S. F. (1977). Subjectivity, expression, and privacy: Problems of aesthetic regulation. Minnesota Law Review 62(2), 1-58. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/mnlr62&div=10&id=&page=

Wolter, B. (2008). Die Gestalt des öffentlichen Raumes. Stadträume in der ahrnehmung der Nutzer. Available online at http:// www.avbstiftung.de/fileadmin/projekte/LP_AvB_Wolter.pdf , updated on 3/06/2008, checked on 2/12/2011.

Zucker, P. (1959). Town and square form the agora to the village green. New York: Columbia University Pr. https://doi.org/10.1177/000271626032900157