The causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in US: Fresh evidence from the Toda–Yamamoto approach




Urbanization, Economic growth, Toda-Yamamoto method.


This study aims to investigate the causal relationships between urbanization and economic growth for the United State during the period 1960- 2017. We utilize the time series technique known as Toda-Yamamoto method, which efficiently works even with the variables co-integrated of arbitrary order. Empirical findings suggest a unidirectional Granger causality running from urbanization to economic growth, and no Granger causality detected from economic growth to urbanization for the long run. The findings prove that urbanization is nominated as a main driving force of economic growth.


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How to Cite

SALIMINEZHAD, A., & BAHRAMIAN, P. (2019). The causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in US: Fresh evidence from the Toda–Yamamoto approach. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 3(2), 166–172.