Information For Authors
Before starting the submission process we recommend reviewing the journal's section policies, as well as the Manuscript Preparation Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step submission process.
Note: Submitted manuscripts need to be prepared according to the standards of the Journal Of Contemporary Urban Affairs. The manuscripts that are not adequately prepared will receive desc rejection.
- » New submissions
- » Minimum requirements for submission
- » Submission preparation checklist
- » Manuscript structure
- » Respond to reviewers’ comments
- » Minimum requirements to submit the revised manuscript
- » Reference style
- » APA referencing basics
- » Citing references in the text
- » Reference management software
- » English editing and proofreading
- » After acceptance
Manuscripts must be submitted online and proceeds are totally online. Authors will be guided stepwise in the creation and uploading of files. The electronic submission process reduces the time involved in editorial processing, review and submission for publication.
Please submit your article via:
Minimum requirements for submission
To start the review process, the authors should submit at least two files including a "cover letter" and "manuscript file (anonymous)".
a) Cover Letter: The Author's academic title, The name(s), professional or academic affiliation(s), and email address(es) of the corresponding author(s), ORCID Number (s) should be submitted separately in one cover letter. You may use the following template as a cover letter: Cove Letter_Template.doc
b) Manuscript File (anonymous): The manuscript file should not contain the author's name or affiliation. Please use the following manuscript template for submission. Manuscript File_Template.doc
Note: In other to submit your manuscript, authors and co-authors MUST have an ORCID Number. Your ORCID profile should be up to date in such a way that our editors can easily reach your previously published content. You can obtain your ORCID Number from here
Submission preparation checklist
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check that their submission is in compliance with the following guidelines:
- The submitted manuscript has not been previously published or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. It is the author’s responsibility to indicate to the editor the existence of any work already published (or under consideration for publication elsewhere) by the author(s) that is similar in content to the submitted manuscript.
-The submission file is in Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect format.
- Before submission authors need to check their manuscript for possible accidental plagiarism. Some plagiarism checker websites include http://www.ithenticate.com/ www.duplichecker.com www.grammarly.com, www.plagtracker.com.
Note: To verify originality, your article will be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck. For more info please see: CrossCheck Plagiarism Screening System
Structure of the manuscript: Your manuscript should have at least the following structure: 1. Introduction, 2. Materials and Methods, 3. Results, 4. Discussions, 5. Conclusions. Acknowledgements, Funding, Conflict of interests, Ethics statements, CRediT authorship contribution statement, should also be added subsequently.
Appropriate citations to the literature: It is expected that the submitted manuscript appropriately acknowledges the surrounding literature for the topic. Articles with nonrelevant recent references will receive desk rejection.
Clarity of language: The language of the submitted manuscript must be clear and comprehensible to a global audience. Accordingly, please ask a native English speaker who is a professional in the field of urbanism to proofread your manuscript.
Content relevance: Submitted manuscript must be consistent with the title and stated scope of the journal.
Grant support details: In case it is available, appropriate acknowledgement regarding the source of funding is recommended.
Subdivision of the article: Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1, 2. (then 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.2), 1.2, etc. The abstract is not included in section numbering.
Citations in the text: Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Avoid citation in the abstract. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Reference List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary.
Reference Style: All manuscripts should be formatted using the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style (7th edition). All the articles should have DOI numbers or they should be scientific books relevant to the title of your manuscript. Please make sure to use up-to-date references (Preferably after 2000). Less priority should be given to unofficial internet sources or URLs.
Note: For every in-text citation in your manuscript, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.
Note: Manuscripts that do not adhere to the above-mentioned guidelines will receive desk rejection.
Text Formatting: Manuscripts should be submitted in Microsoft Word format, A4, Times New Roman, 12-point for abstract and keywords and 12-point for text.
-A complete manuscript file should be a maximum of 8,000 words (including references, tables, figures and appendices).
- Italic font should be used to emphasise text, quotes or sentences.
» Materials and Methods
» Conflict of interests
» Data availability statement
» CRedit author statement
Title: The title of the manuscript should be concise and informative. The submitted title must be original and relevant to the scope of the journal. The manuscript should include a title of no more than 15 words which presents the originality and contribution of the work. Title should not include any abbreviations or acronyms. overall, An effective title should: Convey the main topics of the study, Highlight the importance of the research, Be concise, and Attract readers.
Abstract: An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of 200 words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes:
- Introduction and Reason for conducting the research: Never lose sight of why the research was conducted. So include critical aspects that highlight the importance of the research as these are best used to engage readers to read the full paper. start with General Background to the Specific Background.
- Problem (knowledge gap): What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project? What is the main argument/thesis/claim?
- Methods: An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in the research. -What approach do you use to solve the problem? Methodology techniques should be mentioned in general.
- Outcomes (results): Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more general way. Quantify the progress.
- Ramifications (Implications): What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?
The abstract SHOULD NOT contain:
- Acronyms or abbreviations,
- Any sort of image, illustration, figure, or table, or references to them.
- Citations to other works, and
- Jargon or terms that may be confusing to the reader,
- Lengthy background or contextual information,
- Redundant phrases, unnecessary adverbs and adjectives, and repetitive information;
- References to other literature [say something like, "current research shows that..." or "studies have indicated..."],
- Using ellipticals [i.e., ending with "..."] or incomplete sentences,
Techniques to write an abstract:
- Do the abstract last
- Reread the article looking specifically for the main parts: Purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations
- Write a first rough draft without looking at the original article
- Edit your draft by correcting organization, improving transitions, dropping unnecessary information and words, and adding important information you left out.
- Ask a colleague to examine the abstract.
Keywords: Keywords are words that capture the essence of your paper. Keywords make your paper searchable and ensure that you get more citations. Therefore, it is important to include the most relevant keywords that will help other authors find your paper. there should be at least 4-6 keywords in one scientific article. single word keywords are not acceptable because they may lead to many false matches. So, the suggestion is to suggest a keyword which has 2 or 3 words in it. The full forms of shortened words or acronyms and abbreviations should be included as well.
Highlights: Highlights report the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Highlighted words should be informative about the hypothesis, approach and statement.
-Don't try to capture all ideas, concepts or conclusions as highlights are meant to be short.
-Please include terms (hypothesis/methodology/approach/statement) that you know will be interesting for the potential readers.
-Each bullet point (Highlight) should be 75 characters or fewer (including spaces).
-There should not be any jargon, acronyms, or abbreviations.
- This paper provides evidence for the effect of rural land marketization on CRM.
- The positive effects of rural land marketization can neutralize the negative effects of rural landholdings on CRM.
- Rural land rights reform is more important for migration than relaxing migration restrictions.
- Rural land marketization based on usufruct can help to promote CRM
- A directional distance function model in super-efficiency form is proposed.
- It captures the economic flexibility in smart cities in China.
- Smart city pilots have a positive effect on economic and ecological efficiency.
- The environmental protection effect is not as good as the resources saving effect.
- Adoption, legitimation, and diffusion growth phases revealed with sector narratives
- Appreciative inquiry provides a robust, industry-engaged and action-oriented approach.
- Developed and analysed a collaborative learning framework for sector evolution
- Fostering collaborative learning between organisations is key to growing the GRWF sector
- Green roofs, walls, and facades (GRWF) support liveable cities but there is slow uptake in Australia.
Important Note: From volume 7 number 1 onward it will be asked from the authors to provide “Highlights” for their submitted articles.
Contribution to the field statement (originality/value/findings): In this part, it is required the authors to briefly summarize in 50 words the manuscript’s contribution to, and position in, the existing literature in the field. “Contribution to the field statement” should offer new knowledge and research findings. It is the extent to which the journal makes a unique contribution compared with existing literature/ research evidence in the field. The contribution to the field might even be a new methodology and/or approach to writing the article. Please consider that the Journal Of Contemporary Urban Affairs looks for articles that are innovative and report excellent research and developments in the specialist field.
Note: Contribution to the field statement should convey the meaning and importance of the research to a non-expert. Therefore, this should be written avoiding any technical language or non-standard acronyms.
Note: Your statement should frame the question(s) you have addressed in your work in the context of the current body of knowledge, providing evidence that the findings—whether positive or negative—contribute to progress in your research discipline.
Note: Contribution to the field statement will prove that your manuscript fits within the scope of a speciality as defined in its mission statement.
- This fivefold theoretical model adds to the existing architectural body of knowledge by adopting a multidisciplinary and multidimensional angle, going beyond the predominantly pragmatic vision associated with ageing. It provides stakeholders in architecture with a fresh and clear insight of meaningful relationships between older people and their residential environment.
- The originality of this paper lies in the introduction and discussion of the paradox of customization in housing. The paper identifies the conditions advanced in architecture for assessing housing customization approaches. Additionally, the authors propose a new customization approach and a design tool that to a large extent fulfils those conditions and avoids the customization paradox.
- To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study offering an in-depth comparative analysis of small home typologies in India.
- This paper suggests areas for further study into the reduction of attrition rates of registered women in this discipline, with an emphasis that further research may expand to focus rather on positive aspects of the profession resulting in areas of retention, which has been of little focus in current research. Additionally, these findings make suggestions toward a series of recommendations that may assist in framing the industry toward more positive and equitable career and industry trajectories.
Important Note: From volume 7 number 1 onward it will be asked from the authors to provide “Contribution to the field statement” for their submitted articles.
Introduction: In the introduction paragraph, avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. From the introduction part readers need to get “What” is known about the research? (reviewing the relevant literature) , “What” is not known about the research? (gap in the literature-problem statement) and “Why” the research was done?
Write your "Introduction" into three sections:
- Establish an area to research by:
- Highlighting the importance of the topic, and/or
- Making general statements about the topic, and/or
- Presenting an overview on current research on the subject.
- Identify a research niche by:
- Opposing an existing assumption, and/or
- Revealing a gap in existing research, and/or
- Formulating a research question or problem, and/or
- Continuing a disciplinary tradition.
- Place your research within the research niche by:
- Stating the intent of your study,
- Outlining the key characteristics of your study,
- Describing important results, and
- Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper.
NOTE: Even though the introduction is the first main section of a research paper, it is often useful to finish the introduction very late in the writing process because the structure of the paper, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion will have been completed and it ensures that your introduction matches the overall structure of your paper.
Materials and Methods: Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Results: Results should be clear and concise.
Discussions: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The function of this section is to analyze the data and relate them to other studies. To "analyze" means to evaluate the meaning of your results in terms of the original question or hypothesis and point out their biological significance. The "Discussion" should contain at least:
- the relationship between the results and the original hypothesis, i.e., whether they support the hypothesis, or cause it to be rejected or modified
- integration of your results with those of previous studies in order to arrive at explanations for the observed phenomena
- possible explanations for unexpected results and observations phrased as hypotheses that can be tested by realistic experimental procedures, which you should describe.
Trends that are not statistically significant can still be discussed if they are suggestive or interesting, but cannot be made the basis for conclusions as if they were significant.
Avoid redundancy between the "Results" and the "Discussion" section. Do not repeat detailed descriptions of the data and results in the "Discussion".
End the "Discussion" with a summary of the principal points you want the reader to remember.
Conclusions: The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short "Conclusions" section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a "Discussion" or "Results" and "Discussion" section. The "Conclusion" also provides a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the research problem, given that the reader has been presented with all the information about the topic.
When writing the "Conclusion" to your paper, follow these general rules:
- Restate the research problem addressed in the paper.
- Do not simply reiterate your results or the discussion.
- Summarize your overall arguments or findings
- Indicate opportunities for future research, as long as you haven't already done so in the discussion section of your paper.
Acknowledgements: Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List in this section those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proofreading the article, etc.).
Funding: A “funding statement” is a way for authors to claim ownership of any potential biases, announce financial affiliations, and promote maximum transparency in their work. A funding statement indicates whether or not the authors received funding (institutional, private and/or corporate financial support) for the work reported in their manuscript.
If the study was not funded at all by any agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors, the statement should be written as:
-This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
If the Funding provider was available it should be written as:
-This paper represents independent research part-funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.
- This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China [grant number XXXXXXX]; the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number XXXXXXX] and the National Key R&D Program of China [grant number XXXXXXXX] to Weizhong Li.
- This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number XXXXXXXX, XXXXXXXX].
CRedit author statement: For transparency, authors are required to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. See More details and example
Conflict of interests: A conflict of interests exists when an author’s financial interests or other opportunities for tangible personal benefit may compromise, or reasonably appear to compromise, the independence of judgment in the research or scholarship presented in the manuscript submission.
Data availability statement: “Data Availability Statement” simply refers to state whether you have made evidence available and if so, where and how it can be accessed. For more information on how to prepare “Data Availability Statement” for your article please click here
Appendices: If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulas and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Tables and figures should be done in a similar way: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc. Appendices should come after References.
Footnotes and abbreviations: Footnotes should be avoided. Abbreviations should also be avoided. If inevitably used, footnotes should only contain additional text (comment), and not information about sources used. The abbreviations stated in tables and pictures should be explained.
Respond to reviewers’ comments
If you have received revision (Minor or Major) from a journal it means that you have convinced the editors and reviewers that your article has an original contribution to the literature. During the process of revision which sometimes might be stressful, you should develop a strategy to completely understand each comment which is given by the reviewers and/or editors. Considering this fact, the main reason that you receive revision is that the reviewers would like to see how and in what way you are revisioning your article. They want to see your academic knowledge, ability and professionality in the process of revision. One of these abilities is how much you can perceive different perspectives of one single concern of a reviewer and/or how you will be able to apply given comments in the different parts of your manuscript. If the reviewers realized that the response to the reviewers is not appropriate or they were not satisfied with the quality of your work in a given time they may reject your manuscript.
Minimum requirements to submit the revised manuscript
a-Rebuttal Letter: The rebuttal letter is an author's chance to directly reply to the reviewers, announce plans to improve the work, clear up misunderstandings or defend aspects of the work. Generally written by the corresponding author, your Rebuttal letter should include your manuscript details and a brief statement to note the resubmission. Please see the template from here
b- Author's Response to Reviewers and Editor Comments: In this file, it is required to describe, explain and justify your responses to the editor’s and reviewers' comments. See the template from: here
c- Track changes document: Return your revised manuscript with your revisions highlighted. Use a tool like Microsoft Word’s “track changes” feature. Please see the template from here
d- Clean version: Submit a “clean” version of your manuscript to show your work in its final form. This file is usually uploaded as the “manuscript” file and allows the editor to read your work without the distraction of marked-up detail, ensuring that it is ready for production.
What the author should do during the revising?
-Do Pick your battles wisely: Even if you don’t agree with a minor change suggested by a reviewer, it’s usually easiest to just make the change. It shows you’re open to suggestions.
-Do identify where in the text you have made the changes.
-Do keep the tracked changes copy of your manuscript separate from your main manuscript.
-Do list each reviewer's comment and how you’ve addressed it. If you have decided not to respond to a comment, please explain why.
-Do provide a thorough, point-by-point response to the reviewers.
-Do thank the reviewers and editors for their time reviewing. Reviewers and editors are volunteers; they are taking their time to help you improve your manuscript.
-Be tactful when explaining why you disagree with the reviewer. To support your argument, you may use supplementary material, such as figures and tables, that you won’t include in the manuscript.
What the author shouldn’t do during the revising?
- Don’t omit any concern raised by a reviewer. You should address each comment—either make the change or reject it and justify your choice.
- End the letter to the reviewer with a sentence such as, “We would like to thank the referee again for taking the time to review our manuscript.”
- When a reviewer fails to understand a point you made, don’t assume they’re ignorant. If they failed to understand something you wrote, you’ve failed to express your idea clearly, and you confused at least one reader. So, it’s likely the text needs editing for clarity and logic.
-Avoid giving yes or no answers. Even if you’ve been asked to make minor changes, such as correcting a misspelt word, say “We’ve corrected the typo.” If it’s a more serious mistake, you may also add “We apologize for our error.”
-Don’t avoid or ignore specific questions from reviewers as this can sometimes lead to reviewers deciding to decline the revision.
-Don’t say “I’ve made all the recommended changes”. Say HOW you have made the changes.
-Don’t take the reviewer's comments personally.
For more information please see:
a) How to respond to reviewers’ comments: A practical guide for authors, by Cristina N. from here
b) How to respond to reviewer comments – the CALM way, by Catherine Carnovale from: here
c) How to write an effective “Response to Reviewers” letter, by Jeff Offutt from: here
All manuscripts should be formatted using the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style, which is used primarily in the social sciences. The most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association should be used during the preparation of the manuscripts.
APA referencing basics:
- Journal Articles:
Andreff, W., Staudohar, P. D., & Streefkerk, R. (2000). The evolving European model of professional sports finance. Journal of Sports Economics, 1(3), 257–276. https://doi.org/10.1177/152700250000100304
Smith, T. (2020). The citation manual for students: A quick guide (2nd ed.). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1000/182
- Book Chapter:
Author, A. A., & Author, B, B. (2020).Title of the chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (2nd ed., pp. 123-213). Publisher Name. https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxx
Lastname, A. (year). Title of the book review in sentence case [Review of the book Title of the book in sentence case, by A. Author]. Journal name, Volume(Issue), First page–Last page.
Dent-Read, C., & Zukow-Goldring, P. (2001). Is modeling knowing? [Review of the book Models of cognitive development, by K. Richardson]. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 126–133.
- Published Thesis or Dissertation:
Lastname, A. A. (year). Title of thesis in sentence case [Doctoral, Master, or Bachelor’s thesis or dissertation, Name of the Institution]. Name of Repository. www.website.com
Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615
- Unpublished Thesis or Dissertation:
Lastname, A. A. (year). Title of thesis in sentence case [Unpublished doctoral or Master’s thesis or dissertation]. University.
Imber, A. (2003). Applicant reactions to graduate recruitment and selection [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Monash University.
- Published Conference Paper
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year, Month date). Title of paper [Paper presentation]. Title of Conference: Subtitle of Conference, Location. DOI or URL
- Paper Published in Conference Proceedings-Book form:
A. (Date). Title of paper. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of proceedings (page numbers). Publisher. DOI OR URL if relevant.
- Paper Published in Conference Proceedings- Journal form:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), First page–Last page. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/xxxx
- Not published Symposium Materials:
Materials from the symposium or a scientific paper that was only presented, but not published, indicate the professional or academic event in the paper was presented. If the author has uploaded it on the event website, it is recommended to include the name and web page.
Cuter, LD, Frölich, B., & Hanrahan, P. (1997, January 16). Two-handed direct manipulation on the responsive workbench. Paper presented at the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics. Abstract retrieved June 12, 2000, from http://www.graphics.standard.edu/papers/twohanded/
Article from a Newspaper:
Newspaper Article with No Author Given:
Article from a Magazine:
Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia Published Regularly Online:
- Electronic Resources:
The author’s name [comma], initial/names [point], [open small brackets] year of publication [close little brackets] [point] title of the paper [point], an indication of what kind of material is in square brackets, taken (note that work will take) the day, month and year, with (internet address).
Schwarzer, R. (1989). Statistics software for meta-analysis [Computer software and manual]. Retrieved March 23, 2001, http://www.yorku.ca/faculty/academic/schwarze/meta_e.htm
- Data Downloaded from the Official Organization Website:
In referencing Data downloaded from government websites or another official organization website, indicate the filename of the data in italics.
Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. (1991). National Health Provider Inventory: Home health agencies and hospices, 1991. [Data file]. Available from the National Technical Information Service Web site, http://www.ntis.gov
Standards take according to Suzic, N. (2010). Pravila pisanja naučnog rada APA i drugi standardi [Rules scientific APA work and other standards]. XBS Banja Luka.
- Powerpoint Slides or Lecture Notes:
When the slides are available online to anyone, use the site name, followed by the URL. If the slides come from a learning management system (e.g. Blackboard) and the audience you are writing for has access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its main URL.
Look at the report carefully to determine the author. Reports are often written by organisations or corporate authors. When the author of the report is the same as the website name, omit the name a second time (i.e. where you would list the website) to avoid repetition.
The new health-care lexicon. (1983, August / September). Copy Editor, 4, 1-2.
- Press Release:
Lastname, A. (year, month day). Title of the press release in sentence case [Press Release]. www.website.com
American Psychological Association. (2018, January 31). Dishonest individuals perceived as less capable [Press release]. http://www.apa.org/news/press/dishonest-individuals.aspx
- Blog Post:
Lastname, A. (year, month day). Title of the article in sentence case. Blog in Title Case. url
Ouellette, J. (2019, November 15). Physicists capture the first footage of quantum knots unravelling in a superfluid. Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/11/study-you-can-tie-a-quantum-knot-in-a-superfluid-but-it-will-soon-untie-itself
Author, A. [Twitter/Instagram handle]. (year, month day). Tweet (up to the first 20 words) as the title [Tweet]. Twitter. www.website.com
Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/30619534584566572
Surname of Host, Initial. (Host). (Date). Title of the podcast in sentence case [Type of podcast]. Venue.
Meraji, S. M., & Demby, G. (Hosts). (2016–2018). Code switch [Audio podcast]. National Public Radio. https://www.npr.org/podcasts/510312/codeswitch
Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, A. (Director). (Release Year). Title of motion picture in sentence case [Motion picture]. Production Company.
Davidson, F. (Producer), & Davidson, J. (Director). (1999). B. F. Skinner: A fresh appraisal [Motion picture]. Davidson Films.
- YouTube Video:
Author. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. www.website.com
Apsolon, M. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on video, tape 14 [Video]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848
- Dictionary or Encyclopedia:
Lastname, A. (year). Title of the chapter in sentence case. In B. Lastname, C. Lastname, & D. Lastname (Eds.), Title of the book in sentence case (pp.First page–Last page). Publisher.
American Psychological Association. (2015). Mood induction. In APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed., p. 667). American Psychological Association.
- Report of an Organization or Institution:
When the list of sources cites a report of an organization or institution that has no author, it is best to indicate the owner or head of the organization, who can be assumed to be the author.
Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1992, February). Sources of health insurance and characteristics of the uninsured (Issue Brief No. 123). Washington, DC: Author.
- Published Work on the Internet as a Scanned Copy:
When the work was published on the Internet as a scanned copy, it should cite the original source noting that this is the electronic version.
Vandenbos, G. Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). The role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
Note: If you download work from the Internet that you believe is different from the original, indicate the date of download and web address.
Vandenbos, G. Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2006). The role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 6, 217-223. Retrieved October 14, 2004, from http://jbr.org/articles.html
Note: When you download a document from the internet which has no date or author, the document name takes the place of the author’s name.
7th GVU’s WWW User Survey. (Od). Retrieved August 5, 2004, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/
- Computer Software:
In referencing computer software, indicate the name of the software in italic.
Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster, CA: Psytek Service.
Note: You may use the following templates of references in APA style prepared by Victoria University. https://libraryguides.vu.edu.au/apa-referencing/7JournalArticles
Frequently asked questions in referencing:
- When an abstract or summary of an article is quoted from the original source after the title indicates in the closed bracket that it is abstract. See the example below:
Woolf, NJ, Young, SL, Famselow, MS, & Butcher, LL (1991). Map-2 expression in cholinoceptive pyramidal cells of rodent cortex and hippocampus is altered by Pavlovian conditioning [Abstract]. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 17, 480 harvesters.
- Titles that are not in English:
For "titles" that are not in English and authors want the research to be published in the journal in English, do the following: write the title in its original language (non-roman alphabets should be converted to roman alphabets) and then in a closed bracket, give the title translated into English. In addition to the title, everything else remains the original language.
Ising, M. (2000). Intensitätsabhängigkeit evozierter Potenzial their EEG: Sindh impulsive persons Augmenter stage Reducer? [Intensuty dependence and event related EEG potentials: Are impulsive individuals augmenters or reducers?]. Zeitschrift für Différentiel und diagnostisch Psychology, 21, 208-217.
- When you cite articles published on the university or one of the official institutions, or universities, the authors’ first name should be written before the name of the institution. See the example below:
Broadhurst, RG, & Maller, RA (1991). Sex offending and recidivism (Tech. Rep. No. 3). Nedlands: University of Western Australia, Crime Research Center.
Number of authors to include in in-text citations:
The format of the author part of the in-text citation varies depending on how many authors are attributed to the work and the citation style.
Works with the same author and same date:
When multiple references have an identical author (or authors) and publication date, include a lower case letter after the year. The year-letter combination is used in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry.
Hall (2019a) or (Hall, 2019a)
Hall (2019b) or (Hall, 2019b)
Hall, M. C. (2019a). Constructing sustainable tourism development: The 2030 agenda and the managerial ecology of sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 27(7), 1044-1060. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1560456
Hall, M. C. (2019b). Tourism and rewilding: An introduction - definition, issues and review. Journal of Ecotourism. 18(4), 297-308. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1560456
Citing References in the text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Citation of a reference as ‘in press’ implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
- When a work has two authors, always indicate both names, year and specify the conjunction “&” in-between surnames of the authors.
Nightlinger and Littlewood (2003) demonstrated ...
As has been shown (Busk & Serlin, 1993) ...
- When in plain text quoting the names of three, four or five authors, first make sure to include all the names, and text enough to write only the first and add ‘’ and associates’’.
First time: Yan, G., Tian, H., Bai, X. & Rayner, K. (2006). found ...
Second time: Yan, G.et al. (2006) found ... (ibid, p. 12)
- When a work has no author’s name, whether it’s because it is issued by the agency, organization, or governmental institutions, rather than the names of authors mention the name of the institution or organization that has signed the paper, and if a name is long, just so many words or abbreviation as needed to locate the source in the list of references.
First time: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999) ...
Second time: (NIMH, 1999) ...
- When you do not have the names of institutions or authors, or when the work is anonymous, then only mention the first few words of the title, and quote them in parentheses using plain text in italics.
These results are present (‘’ Study Finds, ‘’ 2002) ...
The book College Bound Seniors (2003) ...
When work is labelled as anonymous, in a close bracket, indicate that it is anonymous and cite the year in English (Anonymous, 2011).
- If there are two references with the same author’s last name, be sure to mention it when citing the initials to avoid an unnecessary search in a list of references.
JM Goldberg and Neff (1961) and ME Goldberg and Wurtz (1972) studied ...
- If the same author or the same authors cite two or more references, then in brackets do not repeat names but just add a year for the next release.
- If the same author or the same authors cite two or more references, do not repeat names but just add a year for the next release in brackets.
Past research (Edeline & Weinberger, 1991, 1993) ...
Past research (Gogel, 1984, 1990) ...
- When the same author has more work within a year, then these sources are labelled using the letters of the alphabet a, b, c and so on.
Several studies (Gogel, 1984, 1990a, 1990b) ...
- When there are several authors, cite them in the same bracket
Several studies (Balda 1980, Kamil 1988, Pepperberg & Funk, 1990) ...
- When quoting hearsay, cite the author’s name and year of the original work; followed by a semicolon, cited code, last name, year and from which he quoted the original work.
The first definition of intrinsic motivation gave Decy (1975; see Suzić 2005, p. 108) ...
- If the year of the first publication of the work is known, then it is to be written with the year of translation by first stating the year of first publication, a slash and the year of translation.
- For an Internet source that does not have a bookmarked Web page, use a pair of and paragraph numbers on the page where it was published.
(Myers, 2000, 5)
- Personal communication or publicly spoken words in a lecture should be quoted with the date and only in plain text, but not included in the list of references.
Decy (personal communication, April 18, 2001) ...
Important Note: Non-Latin scripts cannot be used in the references list, so the title needs to be transliterated to English. The original title should be written using Latin scripts and the translation should be in bracket :
Referencing table and figures in the text :
Number all the tables and figures that are part of the main text. In the text refer to them by their number. Do not write "the table above or below" or the" the figure on page 12".
Hubbard et al. (2018, Table 1) show the effects of varying amount of managerial power on the role of board of directors...
As shown in Table 1, zone 3 and 4 are low population density regions...
Figure 2 shows the market share of the mining industry remained stable ....
.......the results of the survey (see Table 3).
.......after market comparison (see Figures 4 and 5).
Referencing images without displaying them in the text:
If you are discussing an image in your work, but not including the actual image, use the same approach as you would for any typical reference by including the author and date of publication in-text (including page numbers where possible), and a full reference list entry in the format appropriate for the source you found the image in (book, website, etc).
This romantic view of chivalry is also present in The Accolade (De La Sizeranne, 2012, p. 25), a prominent pre-Raphaelite painting.
Direct quotes in APA Style:
A direct quote is a piece of text copied word-for-word from a source. You may quote a word, phrase, sentence, or entire passage.
Example: APA direct quote according to a recent paper, “quotes can be useful in academic writing” (Singh et al., 2022, p. 57).
Horváth and Kovács (2020) argue that “plagiarism is often a matter of confusion rather than deception” (p. 4).
Citing indirect sources:
If you want to refer to a source that you have found in another source, you should always try to access the original or primary source.
However, if you cannot find the original source, you should cite it through the secondary source that led you to it, using the phrase “as cited in”.
(Parker, 1978, as cited in Bloom et al., 2017)
If the publication date of the primary source is unknown, include only the year of publication of the secondary source.
Porter (as cited in Johnson, 2017) states that…
Only include a reference entry for the secondary source, not the primary source.
Author roles in APA references:
If contributors have a different role than “author”, a description of their role is sometimes (but not always) included in parentheses. Check the table below to learn when to provide a role description.
* Abbreviate the editor role to “Ed.” (one editor) or “Eds.” (multiple editors).
Abbreviations in APA references:
To save space in the reference entry, some common parts of works are abbreviated. Pay attention to the differences in capitalization and punctuation.
Reference management software
The easier way to cite references is to use efficient reference management software such as:
EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and
Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp).
Above management software have plug-ins to word processing where authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. If you cannot find an available template, see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.
English editing and proofreading
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the available English Language Editing centres. During or after the review process of manuscripts if one of the editorial board members of the Journal Of Contemporary Urban Affairs realized that the article needs “English Editing and Proofreading”, it is the authors' responsibility to ask a native English speaker or any other organizations to provide proofreader version of the article.
Note: Editing should be done using Microsoft Word. Ask your “proofreader” to turn on “Track change” during the process of proofreading. So, the authors will submit the final edited version of the word file and another word file including the track change.
Note: Before the publication of the article all the articles need to go through the proofreading process.
Note: The following are English language guidelines for submissions to the Journal Of Contemporary Urban Affairs:
- A sentence should not start with But or And (use however or find alternatives).
- Define abbreviations the first time they are mentioned in the abstract, text; also, the first time they are mentioned in a table or figure.
- Please capitalize all words in headings including hyphenated words (e.g., Anti-Antagonist), except conjunctions (and, or, but, nor, yet, so, for), articles (a, an, the), and all prepositions (including those of five letters or more) (in, to, of, at, by, up, for, off, on, against, between, among, under). The first and last words in the title are always capitalized.
- The 'th' in 19th or 20th should NOT be written in superscript.
- There is no space after > or < unless it is between two figures, i.e., 8 < 9.
- Write 1980s rather than with an apostrophe (1980’s) or just 80s.
- Write don't, can't... in full, i.e., do not, cannot.
Online proof correction: The final version is created in PDF and authors have to accept the final version or immediately report the errors. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please check carefully before replying, as the inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed.