Main Article Content
Design students should be able to design living environments and products according to diverse users’ needs, problems and expectations. The aim of this research is to explore the role of empathy as a design learning tool in interior architecture education. Moreover, the intention is to determine and analyze the reflections after the role-playing technique is experienced. This study is conducted with the graduate design students and three tasks were assigned to them. In the first task, the students took visually impaired people’s role and acted in real life activities in a café. Then, they expressed their role-playing reflections and design reflections through semi-structured interviews. Lastly, Verbal Protocol Analysis is used in determining and categorizing the relevant affective and cognitive empathic expressions that were recorded. Color and light, orientation, safety and accessibility were mostly expressed as design issues in reflections. Furthermore, findings indicated that cognitive empathic expressions were widely used than affective expressions.
Copyright © 2019 Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Altay, B. (2017). Developing empathy towards older adults in design. Educational Gerontology, 43(4), 198-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601277.2016.1273733
Altay, B., Ballice, G., Bengisu, E., Alkan, S., & Paykoç, E. (2016). Embracing student experience in inclusive design education through learner-centered instruction. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(11), 1123-1141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1155662
Altay, B., & Demirkan, H. (2014). Inclusive design: Developing students’ knowledge and attitude through empathic modelling. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(2), 196-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2013.764933
Batson, D.C., Fultz, J., Schoenrade, P. A. (1987). Distress and Empathy: Two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences. Journal of Personality, 55(1). 19-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1987.tb00426.x
Bernardi, N., & Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K. (2010). When role playing is not enough: Improved universal design education. Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research, 4(2-3), 376-390. Retrieved from http://archnet-ijar.net/index.php/IJAR/article/viewFile/144/154
Cardoso, C., Clarkson, P. J. (2012). Simulation in user-centered design: Helping designers to empathise with atypical users. Journal of Engineering Design, 23(1), 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544821003742650
Davis, M.H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, p.85. Retrieved from https://www.uv.es/friasnav/Davis_1980.pdf
Davis, M.H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113-126. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124
Davis, M.H. (1996). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Dökmen, Ü. (1988). Empatinin yeni bir modele dayanılarak ölçülmesi ve psikodrama ile geliştirilmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(1-2), 155-190 [Measuring empathy based on a new model and developing with psychodrama], Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 21(1-2), 155-190. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1501/Egifak_0000000999
Empathy. (n.d.). Cambridge Dictionary Online. Retrieved in May 2019 from
Evyapan, N. A. G. Z., Demirkan, H. (2000). The 16 cubes game for children who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 94 (6), 396-399. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11693/50596
Gomez-Lanier, L. (2018).The role of empathy in experiential Learning: A case study of empathy as an interior design learning tool. International Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 6(4), 20-29. https://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/ijsoctu6&div=42&g_sent=1&casa_token=&collection=journals&t=1558258378
Grynberg, D., & Pollatos, O. (2015). Perceiving one’s body shapes empathy. Physiology & Behavior, 140, 54-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.026
Hess, J. L. & Fila, N. D. (2016). The manifestation of empathy within design: findings from a service-learning course. CODESIGN, 12, NOS. 1-2, 93-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15710882.2015.1135243
Jalalzadeh, S., Jalalzadeh, R. (2013). Importance of architectural design in libraries for the blind. Conversation Science in Cultural Heritage, 13, 126-136. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1973-9494/4179
Kouprie, M. & Sleeswijk Visser, F. (2009). A framework for empathy in design: Stepping into and out of the user’s life. Journal of Engineering Design, 20(5), 437-448. https://doi.org/10.1080/09544820902875033
McDonagh, D. (2015). Design students foreseeing the unforeseeable: Practice-based empathic research methods. International Journal of Education through Art, 11(3), 421- 431. https://doi.org/10.1386/eta.11.3.421_1
McDonagh, D., & Thomas, J. (2010). Disability + Relevant Design: Empathic design strategies supporting more effective new product design outcomes. The Design Journal, 13(2), 180-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/175470710X12735884220899
McDonagh, D., Thomas, J., & Strickfaden (2011). Empathic Design Research: Moving Towards a New Mode of Industrial Design Education. Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal, 5(4), 301-313. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=8bcb4842-41b9-4fc8-b7d8-0c0f033ac6b0%40sdc-v-sessmgr03
Mehrabian, A. & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality, 40 (1), 525-543. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1972.tb00078.x
Nicolle, C., & Maguire, M. (2003, June). Empathic modelling in teaching design for all. In Proceedings of International conference on human-computer interaction; Universal access in HCI: inclusive design in the information society, (pp.143-7) Retrieved from https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/722
Strayer, J. (1987). Affective and cognitive perspectives on empathy. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and Its Development (pp.218-244). Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Strickfaden, M. & Devlieger, P. (2011). Empathy through accumulating techné: Designing an accessible metro. The Design Journal, 14(2), 207-229. https://doi.org/10.2752/175630611X12984592780041
Suwa, M., & Tversky, B. (1997). What do architects and students perceive in their sketches? A protocol analysis. Design Studies, 18(4), 385-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-694X(97)00008-2
Torrens, G. (2000). Understanding the product user: The implementation of a user-centered design approach by student industrial designers when designing for elderly and disabled people. The Design Journal, 3(1), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.2752/146069200789393571
van Rijn, H., Sleeswijk Visser, F., Jan Stappers, P., Özakar, A. D. (2011). Achieving empathy with users: the effects of different sources of information, CoDesign, 7(2), 65-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15710882.2011.609889