Main Article Content
Despite the rise to prominence of sustainable planning, the state of urgency and the pressure imposed by the extreme competition between metropolitan territories reduces sustainability to a market-oriented doctrine for deregulated urban development. The aim of this article is an exploration of the current Athenian urban crisis, by centring on sustainable urban development plans, territorial planning institutions, and urban policies. To this end, the phenomenon of urban crisis is explained as a derivative of the failure of sustainability reforms. By establishing a link between the institutional framework governing urban development and the success or failure of sustainability reforms, this article seeks to contribute to the discussion around the attainability, scope and impact of sustainable urban development plans. Through the hypothesis that as long as territorial planning is used as means towards speculative urban development, it will only be equivalent to that of a real estate facilitating mechanism, it is argued that the urban development model of Athens, as well as the role that institutions have in its shaping, is incompatible with any notion of sustainability. The main contribution of this article is to potentially help towards developing a critical reflection on how projects, plans, territories and sustainability should be approached.
Copyright © 2019 Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Ascher, F. (1995). Métapolis ou l’avenir des villes [Metapolis or the future of cities]. Paris: Editions Odile Jacob.
Burgel, G. (2002). Le Miracle Athénien au XXe Siècle [The Athenian Miracle in the 20th Century]. Paris: CNRS Editions.
Chorianopoulos, I., Pagonis, A., Koukoulas, S., & Drymoniti, S. O. (2010). Planning, Competitiveness and Sprawl in the Mediterranean city: The case of Athens. Cities, 27 (4), pp. 249-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2009.12.011
Cluzet, A. (2007). Ville Libérale ou Ville Durable? Répondre à l'Urgence Environnementale [Liberal City or Sustainable City? Responding to the Environmental Urgency]. Paris: Editions de l'Aube.
Connolly, J. J. (2018, March 1). From Systems Thinking to Systemic Action: Social Vulnerability and the Institutional Challenge of Urban Resilience. City & Community, 17, pp. 8-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/cico.12282
Davis, M. (2006). Planet of Slums. London / New York, NY: Verso.
Dawson, A. (2017). Extreme Cities. London: Verso.
Dolowitz, D., & Marsh, D. (1996). Who Learns What from Whom: A Review of the Policy Transfer Literature. Political Studies, 44 (2), pp. 343-357. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1996.tb00334.x
Dolowitz, D., & Marsh, D. (2000). Learning from Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy-Making. Governance, 13 (1), pp. 5-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/0952-1895.00121
Doxiadis, C. A. (1968). ECUMENOPOLIS: Tomorrow’s City. In E. Britannica (Ed.), Britannica Book of the Year (pp. 26-30). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Easterling, K. (2014). Extrastatecraft: The Power of Infrastructure Space. London / Brooklyn, NY: Verso
Economou, D., Petrakos, G., & Psycharis, Y. (2016). National Urban Policy in Greece. In L. Van den Berg, E. Braun, & J. Van der Meer (Eds.), National Policy Responses to Urban Challenges in Europe (pp. 193-216). Oxfordshire / New York, NY: Routledge.
Emmanuel, D. (1994). On the structure of housing accumulation and the role of family wealth transfers in the Greek housing system. London: Routledge.
Gallon, M. (1987). Society in the Making: The Study of Technology as a Tool for Sociological Analysis. In W. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes, & T. J. Pinch (Eds.), The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology (pp. 83 84). Cambridge, MA / London: The MIT Press.
Giannakourou, G. (2004). The Implementation of EU Environmental Policy in Greece: Europeanization and Mechanisms of Change. In D. G. Dimitrakopoulos, & A. G. Passas (Eds.), Greece in the European Union (Europe and the Nation State) (pp. 51-60). London / New York, NY: Routledge.
Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering Urbanism. Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Gunder, M. (2010, 11). Planning as the Ideology of (Neoliberal) Space. Planning Theory (9), pp. 298-314. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095210368878
Hansen, T., & Coenen, L. (2015). The Geography of Sustainability Transitions: Review, Synthesis and Reflections on an Emergent Research Field. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (17), pp. 92-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2014.11.001
Karidis, D. N. (2014). Athens from 1456 to 1920: The Town under Ottoman Rule and the 19th Century Capital City. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Karidis, D. N. (2015). Athens from 1920 to 1940: A true and just account of how history was enveloped by a modern city and the place became an event. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Karvonen, A. (2011). Politics of Urban Runoff: Nature, Technology, and the Sustainable City. Cambridge, MA / London: The MIT Press.
Koolhaas, R. (2014, September 24). My thoughts on the smart city. (E. Commission, Ed.) Retrieved March 28, 2019, from Digital Minds for a New Europe: http://ec.europa.eu/archives/commission_2010-2014/kroes/en/content/my-thoughts-smartcity-rem-koolhaas.html
Lefebvre, H. (1996). Writings on Cities. (E. Kofman, & E. Lebas, Trans.) Oxford / Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Leontidou, L. (1990). The Mediterranean City in Transition: Social Change and Urban Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Moran, M. (2010). Policy-Making in an Interdependent World. In C. Hay (Ed.), New Directions in Political Science: Responses to the Challenges of an Interdependent World (p. 27). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
OECD. (2009). OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Greece (pp. 15-16). Paris: OECD. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264061330-en
Paschou, A. (2008). Urban block in post-war Athens: Development, form and social context. (pp. 38-42). Zürich: ETH Zürich. https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-005810305
Peters, B. G. (1996). Political Institutions, Old and New. In R. E. Goodin, & H.-D. Klingemann (Eds.), A New Handbook of Political Science (pp. 205-220). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Petropoulou, C. (2011). Développement Urbain et Eco-Paysages Urbains: Une Etude sur les Quartiers de Mexico et d'Athènes [Urban Development and Urban Eco-Landscapes: A Study of the Neighbourhoods of Mexico and Athens]. Paris: L'Harmattan.
Prévélakis, G. (2000). Athènes: Urbanisme, Culture et Politique [Athens: Urbanism, Culture and Politics]. Paris: L'Harmattan.
Rodrigue, J.-P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2013). The Geography of Transport Systems. New York: Routledge.
Rogerson, R., & Boyle, M. (2000). Property, politics and the neo-liberal revolution in urban Scotland. Progress in Planning, 54 (3), pp.133-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0305-9006(00)00011-8
Stone, D. (2004). Transfer Agents and Global Networks in the "Transnationalization" of Policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 11 (3), pp. 545-566. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501760410001694291
Theocharopoulou, I. (2017). Builders, Housewives, and the Construction of Modern Athens. London: Black Dog Publishing Limited.
Torfing, J. (1999). New Theories of Discourse: Laclau, Mouffe and Zizek (1st ed.). Oxford / Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Varnelis, K. (2009). The Infrastructural City: Networked Ecologies in Los Angeles. Barcelona / New York, NY: Actar.
Waldheim, C. (2016). Landscape as Urbanism: A General Theory. Princeton, NJ / Oxfordshire: Princeton University Press.