Compliance with Planning Standards Related to the Setbacks around Domestic Buildings: Empirical Evidence from Kenya

Main Article Content

Wilfred ochieng omollo, Dr.
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8994-5120

Abstract

This study investigates the extent to which planning standards that regulate the setbacks around domestic buildings are complied with by developers in Kenya, a case study of Kisii Town.  Using proportional random sampling targeting seven neighbourhoods, a sample of 364 was drawn from the population of 7430 developments. While a checklist was used to collect data on the extent of compliance, data were analyzed using means, standard deviation and one-sample t-test. Results confirmed most developments disregarded the planning standards on setbacks. Hypothesis tests reported a significant difference between the respective recommended setbacks (rear, side and front) and the extent of developers’ conformity, t (289) = -20.382, p = .000; t (289) = -8.937, p = .000; and t (289) = -14.746, p = .000. The study concludes that developers flout planning standards owing to a gap in enforcement. A recommendation is made for the adoption of locally nurtured standards that address the existing socioeconomic attributes as an alternative of relying on those generated at the national level. This study enriches the current body of literature in urban planning by empirically confirming how compliance with planning standards on setbacks may be statistically assessed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
omollo, W. (2020). Compliance with Planning Standards Related to the Setbacks around Domestic Buildings: Empirical Evidence from Kenya. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 4(2), 95-108. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2020.v4n2-9
Section
Original Research

References

Addedeji, J., & Arayela, O. (2018). Urban renewal strategies and economic growth in Ondo State, Nigeria: A case study. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 2(1), 76-83. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3662

African Development Bank (2014). Tracking Africa’s progress in figures. https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Tracking_Africa%E2%80%99s_Progress_in_Figures.pdf

Alnsour, J., & Meaton, J. (2009). Factors affecting compliance with residential standards in the City of Old Salt. Jordan. Habitat International, 33, 301–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2008.08.003

Arimah, B. C., & Adeagbo, D. (2000). Compliance with urban development and planning regulations in Ibadan, Nigeria, Habitat International, 24, 279–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-975(99)00043-0

Babatunde, R.I., &, Emmanuel, T.A. (2014). Appraisal of development control activities in Ogbomoso South Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 5 (6), 331-319. https://www.journalajst.com/appraisal-evelopment-control-activities-ogbomoso-south-local-government-oyo-state-nigeria


Baiche, B., William, N., & Ogden, R. (2006). Compliance with building regulations in England and Wales. Structural Survey, 24 (4), 279-299. https://doi.org/10.1108/02630800610704427

Beattie, L., & Haarhoff, E. (2018). Urban growth, liveability and quality urban design: Questions about the efficacy of urban planning systems in Auckland, New Zealand. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 2 (2), 12-23. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3667

Boob, T.N., & Rao, Y.R.M. (2014). Zoning within plot–an approach to land subdivision to control violation of development control rules. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 2 (4), 48-59. http://ijmcr.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Paper1590-98.pdf

Dambeebo, D., & Jalloh, C.A. (2018). Sustainable urban development and land use management: Wa Municipality in perspective. Ghana, Journal of Sustainable Development, 11 (5), 235-248, https://doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v11n5p235

Fuladlu, K. (2019). Urban sprawl negative impact: Enkomi return phase. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 3(1), 44-51. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4709

Fiene, R. (2016). Theory of regulatory compliance. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3239691

Hope Sr., K.R. (2012). Urbanization in Kenya. African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, 1 (1), 4-26 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262855415_Urbanisation_in_Kenya/link/5888af6192851c06a133b0ef/download

Institute of Economic Affairs (2016). Challenges and way forward in the Kenyan urban sector policy magazine, Issue No. 006. https://www.ieakenya.or.ke/publications/policy-magazines/challenges-and-way-forward-in-the-kenyan-urban-sector

Jimoh, B. A.1., Al-Hasan, A.Z.1., Imimole, W.O., & Ahmed, M.B. (2018). Contravention of development control measures in Auchi, Nigeria. Applied Science Reports, 20 (2). https://ssrn.com/abstract=3201451

Karibasappa, H., Arun., Raja., Jayakkumaran, B., & Jegan, M. (2016). Violation of development control rules and regulations-A case study at Neeladri Nagar, Electronic City Phase-1, Bangalore-560100IOSR. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), 13 (2), 8-12. http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jmce/papers/vol13-issue2/Version-3/B1302030812.pdf

Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W., (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610. https: //doi.org/10.1177/001316447003000308

Mugenda, A., & Mugenda, O. (2003). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Acts Press: Nairobi.

Ngetich, J.K., Opata, G.P., & Mulongo, L.S. (2016). Making urban planning and development control instruments work for Kenyan Cities: The case of the city of Eldoret. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 7(4):246-254. http://jetems.scholarlinkresearch.com/articles/Making%20Urban%20Planning%20and%20Development%20newest.pdf

Obongha, U.E., Ojikpong, B.E., Emri, S., & Upuji, J.K. (2018). Assessment of building regulations enforcement and housing development in Calabar South-Nigeria. International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET), 3 (7) pp.7-14. https://nebula.wsimg.com/8c8dff7447ab1dd063a07c51854abd38?AccessKeyId=D81D660734BCB585516F&disposition=0&alloworigin=1

Offiong, V.E. (2017). Physico-legal characteristics of buildings and compliance with building law in urban area. Calabar, Cross River State. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), 11 (12) 30-35. https://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jestft/papers/vol11-issue%2012/Version-2/D1112023035.pdf

Ojo-Fajuru, & Adebayo, A. (2018). Development control regulations compliance: paradigm change to reinvent disrupted public spaces and make future great place in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 6(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.13189/cea.2018.060101

Olujimi, J.A.B. (2008). Administration of physical planning in Nigeria: The Ondo State experience. Landscape and Urban Planning Journal, 25, 115 –126. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(93)90127-Y


Ritchie, H., & Roser. M. (2020). Urbanization. https://ourworldindata.org/urbanization

Sarkheyli, E., Sharifi, A., Rafieian, M., Bemanian, M.R., & Murayama, A. (2012). An investigation of the reasons for non-compliance with FAR regulations in Tehran. Cities, 29, 223–233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2011.09.004

Tasantab, J.C. (2016). Building permits as a tool for development control: Evidence from Sekondi-Takoradi. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 6 (11), 49-159. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEES/article/view/34079

The Republic of Kenya (2007). Physical Planning Handbook. https://www.scribd.com/doc/208700031/Physical-Planning-Handbook-June-2007

The Republic of Kenya (2010). Constitution: Government Printer: Nairobi. http://kenyalaw.org/kl/index.php?id=398

The Republic of Kenya (2019a). Kenya Population and Census Survey. https://www.knbs.or.ke/?cat=469

The Republic of Kenya (2019b). Physical and Land Use Planning Act. http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/Acts/2019/PhysicalandLandUsePlanningAct_No13of2019.pdf

Twum-Darko, M., & Mazibuko, P.N. (2015). Compliance and enforcement challenges: A Case of the national building regulations processes in South Africa. Journal of Governance, (4), 679-684. https://doi.org/10.22495/jgr_v4_i4_c6_p2

UNDP (2012). Human development report 2012. https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/hdr/africa-human-development-report-2012.html

UN-Habitat (2015). International guidelines on urban and territorial planning, UN-Habitat: Nairobi. https://www.uclg.org/sites/default/files/ig-utp_english.pdf

UN-Habitat (2019) Urban impact. https://unhabitat.org/urban-impact-4th-quarter-2019

Writterstake (2019). Kenya facts and information. https://writerstake.com/posts/kenya-kenya-facts-and-information

World Bank (2016). Kenya urbanization review. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/639231468043512906/pdf/AUS8099-WP-P148360-PUBLIC-KE-Urbanization-ACS.pdf