Compliance with Planning Standards Related to the Setbacks around Domestic Buildings: Empirical Evidence from Kenya
Keywords:Neighbourhood, Planning Standards, Enforcement, Kisii Town
This study investigates the extent to which planning standards that regulate the setbacks around domestic buildings are complied with by developers in Kenya, a case study of Kisii Town. Using proportional random sampling targeting seven neighbourhoods, a sample of 364 was drawn from the target population of 7430 developments. While checklists were used to collect data on the extent of compliance with the planning standards, data were analyzed using means, mode, standard deviation and a one-sample t-test. Results established that most developments disregarded the planning standards on setbacks. Hypothesis tests further reported significant differences between the respective recommended setbacks (front, side and rear) and extent of developers’ compliance, t (289) = -14.746, p = .000; t (289) = -8.937, p = .000; and t (289) = -20.3826, p = .000. The study concludes that developers flout planning standards owing to insufficient development control by the County Government of Kisii. A recommendation is made for the adoption of locally nurtured standards that addresses the existing socioeconomic attributes as an alternative of relying on those generated at the national level. This study enriches the current body of literature in planning by validating how compliance with planning standards may be statistically assessed.
Addedeji, J., & Arayela, O. (2018). Urban renewal strategies and economic growth in Ondo State, Nigeria: A case study. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 2(1), 76-83. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3662
Alnsour, J., & Meaton, J. (2009). Factors affecting compliance with residential standards in the City of Old Salt. Jordan. Habitat International, 33, 301–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2008.08.003
Arimah, B. C., & Adeagbo, D. (2000). Compliance with urban development and planning regulations in Ibadan, Nigeria, Habitat International, 24, 279–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-975(99)00043-0
Babatunde, R.I., &, Emmanuel, T.A. (2014). Appraisal of development control activities in Ogbomoso South Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 5 (6), 331-319.
Baiche, B., William, N., & Ogden, R. (2006). Compliance with building regulations in England and Wales. Structural Survey, 24 (4), 279-299. https://doi.org/10.1108/02630800610704427
Beattie, L., & Haarhoff, E. (2018). Urban growth, liveability and quality urban design: Questions about the efficacy of urban planning systems in Auckland, New Zealand. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 2 (2), 12-23. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.3667
Boob, T.N., & Rao, Y.R.M. (2014). Zoning within plot–an approach to land subdivision to control violation of development control rules. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 2 (4), 48-59. http://ijmcr.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Paper1590-98.pdf
Dambeebo, D., & Jalloh, C.A. (2018). Sustainable urban development and land use management: Wa Municipality in perspective. Ghana, Journal of Sustainable Development, 11 (5), 235-248, https://doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v11n5p235
Fuladlu, K. (2019). Urban sprawl negative impact: Enkomi return phase. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 3(1), 44-51. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4709
Fiene, R. (2016). Theory of regulatory compliance. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3239691
Hope Sr., K.R. (2012). Urbanization in Kenya. African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, 1 (1), 4-26
Institute of Economic Affairs (2016). Challenges and way forward in the Kenyan urban sector policy magazine, Issue No. 006. https://www.ieakenya.or.ke/publications/policy-magazines/challenges-and-way-forward-in-the-kenyan-urban-sector
Jimoh, B. A.1., Al-Hasan, A.Z.1., Imimole, W.O., & Ahmed, M.B. (2018). Contravention of development control measures in Auchi, Nigeria. Applied Science Reports, 20 (2). https://ssrn.com/abstract=3201451
Karibasappa, H., Arun., Raja., Jayakkumaran, B., & Jegan, M. (2016). Violation of development control rules and regulations-A case study at Neeladri Nagar, Electronic City Phase-1, Bangalore-560100IOSR. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), 13 (2), 8-12. http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jmce/papers/vol13-issue2/Version-3/B1302030812.pdf
Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W., (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610. https: //doi.org/10.1177/001316447003000308
Mugenda, A., & Mugenda, O. (2003). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Acts Press: Nairobi.
(2016). Making urban planning and development control instruments work for Kenyan Cities: The case of the city of Eldoret. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 7(4):246-254.
Obongha, U.E., Ojikpong, B.E., Emri, S., & Upuji, J.K. (2018). Assessment of building regulations enforcement and housing development in Calabar South-Nigeria. International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET), 3 (7) pp.7-14.
Offiong, V.E. (2017). Physico-legal characteristics of buildings and compliance with building law in urban area. Calabar, Cross River State. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), 11 (12) 30-35. https://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jestft/papers/vol11-issue%2012/Version-2/D1112023035.pdf
Ojo-Fajuru, & Adebayo, A. (2018). Development control regulations compliance: paradigm change to reinvent disrupted public spaces and make future great place in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 6(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.13189/cea.2018.060101
Olujimi, J.A.B. (2008). Administration of physical planning in Nigeria: The Ondo State experience. Landscape and Urban Planning Journal, 25, 115 –126. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(93)90127-Y
Ritchie, H., & Roser. M. (2020). Urbanization. https://ourworldindata.org/urbanization
Sarkheyli, E., Sharifi, A., Rafieian, M., Bemanian, M.R., & Murayama, A. (2012). An investigation of the reasons for non-compliance with FAR regulations in Tehran. Cities, 29, 223–233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2011.09.004
Tasantab, J.C. (2016). Building permits as a tool for development control: Evidence from Sekondi-Takoradi. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 6 (11), 49-159. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEES/article/view/34079
The Republic of Kenya (2007). Physical Planning Handbook. https://www.scribd.com/doc/208700031/Physical-Planning-Handbook-June-2007
The Republic of Kenya (2010). Constitution: Government Printer: Nairobi. http://kenyalaw.org/kl/index.php?id=398
The Republic of Kenya (2019a). Kenya Population and Census Survey. https://www.knbs.or.ke/?cat=469
Twum-Darko, M., & Mazibuko, P.N. (2015). Compliance and enforcement challenges: A Case of the national building regulations processes in South Africa. Journal of Governance, (4), 679-684. https://doi.org/10.22495/jgr_v4_i4_c6_p2
UN-Habitat (2015). International guidelines on urban and territorial planning, UN-Habitat: Nairobi. https://www.uclg.org/sites/default/files/ig-utp_english.pdf
UN-Habitat (2019) Urban impact. https://unhabitat.org/urban-impact-4th-quarter-2019
Writterstake (2019). Kenya facts and information. https://writerstake.com/posts/kenya-kenya-facts-and-information
World Bank (2016). Kenya urbanization review. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/639231468043512906/pdf/AUS8099-WP-P148360-PUBLIC-KE-Urbanization-ACS.pdf
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.