The Impact of Transit-Oriented Development on Fast-Urbanizing Cities: Applied analytical study on Greater Cairo Region




Transit-oriented Development, Fast-Urbanizing cities, Sustainable transportation, Sustainable development, Greater Cairo region


Transportation has always been the backbone of development. Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been theorized, piloted and expanded increasingly in the past few decades. In this regard, this paper investigates the relationship between urban development, the transportation process, and the required implementation guidelines within fast-urbanizing cities, such as Cairo. After reviewing different related sustainable development theories, the study investigates pioneering case studies that have applied TOD and provided adequate implementation frameworks. The authors then extract and compare a set of required policies. The current Egyptian development paradigm is then discussed in relation to these enabling policies, focusing on Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. The authors debate previous development plans, progress, and newly proposed ones, focusing on the transportation process as the means for development. The study concludes with a set of required guidelines to ensure the integration of transportation with land-use planning, thus ensuring a more prosperous and inclusive urban development.


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Author Biographies

Professor Dr. Sahar Attia, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Dr. Sahar Attia, is an Emeritus Professor of urban design at the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University. She has been the Head of the Department of Architecture in the same institution from 2013-2017. She has 40 years of experience practising and teaching urban planning, urban design, and architecture. She is currently a member of the Supreme Council of Urban Development in Egypt, a member of the Stakeholders Advisory Group Enterprise (SAGE) UN-Habitat, She is also the co-chair of the University Network Initiative -UN-Habitat (UNI),  and a board member in Ecocity Builders, a non-profit public benefit corporation in SF California-USA.

She is the Co-Editor of: “Dynamics And Resilience Of Informal Areas: International Perspectives” (2016), “New Cities and Community Extensions in Egypt and the Middle East” (2018), “Cultural Sustainable Tourism” (2019), and “Ecocities Now” (2020), all four published by Springer. In January 2021, she has been appointed a member of the Egyptian Parliament, and a member of the Science & technology working group in the International Parliamentary Union (IPU).

Professor Dr. Heba Allah Khalil, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Khalil is a professor of sustainable urbanism at the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University and the Senior Coordinator of the Architectural Engineering and Technology AET program at Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University with 20 years of academic and professional experience. She teaches and conducts research in community development, informal areas, urban climate, and integrated urban systems with several publications including books and journal papers. She has built several international research partnerships focusing on urban metabolism and improving urban micro-climate in highly dense cities through material flow analysis, simulation, and participatory action research. More recently, she started a research project focusing on gender equity and cities and another on land governance. Professionally, she also works as an architect, urban planner, community facilitator and housing expert with multi-scale agencies, authorities, and clients both local and international. She has worked for multiple public agencies and international organizations on urban development, strategic planning and housing programs including World Bank, Washington DC, USA; UN-Habitat, Egypt, and local authorities in Egypt. As an Alumna of SPURS, MIT, Dr. Khalil continuously seeks partnerships to support a new planning and design practice for sustainable urbanism in her region. Khalil holds a PhD in architectural engineering from Cairo University and has been granted the Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship in urban studies at MIT.


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How to Cite

Kafrawy, M., Attia, S., & Khalil, H. A. (2022). The Impact of Transit-Oriented Development on Fast-Urbanizing Cities: Applied analytical study on Greater Cairo Region. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 6(1), 83–95.