Evaluating Gender Based Behavior in Historical Urban Public Place Case study: Grand Bazaar, Kerman, Iran


  • Ph. D Candidate. Aida Jalalkamali Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus
  • MA. Elham Anjomshoa Faculty of Architecture, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran




public place, spatial behavior, fear of crime, Environmental psychology, public place functionality.


The study evaluates the spatial behaviors of women in urban public place through ‘fear of crime’ and ‘public place functionality’ factors; by using direct observations and questionnaire within the Grand Bazaar as a historical urban public place in the center of Kerman, which is located in the Southwest part of Iran. The study provides a particular perspective to the analysis and understanding of how women make decisions and behave in a spatial setting based on environmental psychology studies. This study applies combinational research methods including qualitative and quantitative approach, including analytical, descriptive, correlation, and logical reasoning methods. This study also conducts direct observation in order to search the strengths and weaknesses of Grand Bazaar as a public place. The results of the study reveal that there is a significant correlation between fear of crime and women’s environmental perception of Grand Bazaar. Furthermore, the research findings indicate that the anxiety of being in less crowded parts of Bazaar is more tangible among women than men. On the other hand, the results show there is a significant correlation between time periods and women’s activities in Grand Bazaar.


Download data is not yet available.


Altman, I., & Zube, E. H. (2012). Public places and spaces (Vol. 10): Springer Science & Business Media.

Ardener, S. (1981). Women and space: Ground rules and social maps: Berg Publishers.

Brooks, J. (1974). The fear of crime in the United States. Crime & Delinquency, 20(3), 241-244. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/001112877402000303

Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, L., & Stone, A. (1992). Public Space (S. Carr Ed. illustrated, reprint ed.): Cambridge University Press. https://books.google.com.cy/books?isbn=0521359600

Day, K. (1995). Assault prevention as social control: Women and sexual assault prevention on urban college campuses. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(4), 261-281. doi:https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1995.0024

Dovey, K. (1985). An ecology of place and placemaking: Structure, processes. Paper presented at the Place and Placemaking: proceedings of the PAPER 85 Conference, Melbourne, Australia.

Fenster, T. (1999). Space for gender: cultural roles of the forbidden and the permitted. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 17(2), 227-246. doi:https://doi.org/10.1068/d170227

Franck, K. A. (2003). Women and Environment. In R. B. Bechtel & A. Churchman (Eds.), Hand Book of Environmental Psychology (pp. 347-367): John Wiley & Sons. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9780306446801

Franck, K. A., & Paxson, L. (1989). Women and urban public space Public places and spaces (pp. 121-146): Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-5601-1_6

Golledge, R. G. (1997). Spatial behavior: A geographic perspective: Guilford Press.

Hartsock, N. C. (1983). The feminist standpoint: Developing the ground for a specifically feminist historical materialism Discovering reality (pp. 283-310): Springer.

Henley, N. (1977). Body politics: Power, sex, and nonverbal communication: Prentice Hall.

Lang, J. (2017). Urban design: A typology of procedures and products: Routledge.

Leavitt, J. (1988). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role Of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/43028893

Michelson, W. M. (1985). From sun to sun: Daily obligations and community structure in the lives of employed women and their families: Government Institutes.

Moser, C. (1987). Women, human settlements, and housing: a conceptual framework for analysis and policy-making. London ; New York Tavistock Publications.

Riger, S., & Gordon, M. T. (1981). The fear of rape: A study in social control. Journal of Social Issues, 37(4), 71-92. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1981.tb01071.x

Saegert, S., & Hart, R. (1978). The development of environmental competence in girls and boys. Play: An anthropological perspective, 157-176.

Valentine, G. (1989). The geography of women's fear. Area, 385-390. doi:

Wilson, E. (1992). The sphinx in the city: Urban life, the control of disorder, and women: Univ of California Press.

Young, I. M. (1990). Throwing like a girl and other essays in feminist philosophy and social theory.




How to Cite

Jalalkamali , A. ., & Anjomshoa , E. (2019). Evaluating Gender Based Behavior in Historical Urban Public Place Case study: Grand Bazaar, Kerman, Iran. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 3(1), 143–153. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4691